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About Baltic States


Estonia, country in northeastern Europe, the northernmost of the three Baltic states. Estonia’s area includes some 1,500 islands and islets; the two largest of these islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, are off mainland Estonia’s west coast.

Although most islands are uninhabited, they tend to be rural, with some holding traces of their local Viking and medieval legacy. Estonia’s islands used to be populated by Estonian Swedes, many of whom left the region during WWII, leaving behind a wealth of culture that’s visible to this day.

Today, many Estonian islands have their own unique coastal cultures, with traditional singing, dancing, food, and dress. Of course, no matter which island you’re on, you’ll be sure to enjoy plenty of fish and seafood dishes.

Estonia has been dominated by foreign powers through much of its history. In 1940 it was incorporated into the U.S.S.R. as one of its constituent republics. Estonia remained a Soviet republic until 1991, when, along with the other Baltic states, it declared its independence. The Soviet Union recognized independence for Estonia and the other Baltic states on September 6, 1991, and United Nations membership followed shortly thereafter.

More than half of the country is covered by forested land and almost a quarter is protected nature.

Estonia’s capital Tallinn is the best-preserved medieval city in Northern Europe. The largest cities besides Tallinn are Tartu, Narva, Pärnu, Kohtla-Järve, Viljandi, Maardu, Rakvere.


Latvia is a Baltic country situated in North Eastern Europe. Latvia is bordered by 4 Nations: by Estonia in the north; Lithuania in the south; Belarus in the southeast and Russia in the east. Latvia shares its maritime borders with Sweden.

Latvia lies along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea and covers an area of 4,589 sq. km.

Latvia is a very flat country of low-lying plains, largely covered by forest. There are some low hills in the west and far southeast.

A few high hills are found to the east of Riga, with the highest point being the Gaizinkalns at 311.6 m.

There are over 3,000 small lakes in the country. Latvia also has numerous rivers, earnly 12,000. However, most rivers are extremely short. Only 17 rivers flow for more than 100 km (60 mi). Important rivers include the Daugava, Gauja, Lielupe, Venta and Salaca. The lowest point of Latvia is the Baltic Sea at 0 m.

The Biggest Cities In Latvia besides the capital Riga are: Daugavpils, Liepāja, Jelgava and Jūrmala.


Lithuania, country of northeastern Europe, the southernmost and largest of the three Baltic states.

The country is bordered by Belarus, Latvia, Poland, and Russia (Kaliningrad) and it shares a maritime border with Sweden.

Aside from a brief period of independence from 1918 to 1940, Lithuania was occupied by Russia beginning in 1795, was controlled by Germany for a brief period during World War II, and was incorporated into the U.S.S.R. in 1944 as one of its constituent republics. On March 11, 1990, Lithuania declared its independence by a unanimous vote of its newly elected parliament. The new Soviet parliament acknowledged Lithuania’s independence on September 6, 1991.

The country has a population of 2,8 million people (in 2015), capital and largest city is Vilnius. Spoken language is Lithuanian, a Baltic language, closely related to Latvian. The other biggest cities are Kaunas, Klaipėda and Šiauliai.